Basic concepts — Science research outsourcing
This section contains statistical information about the main indicators characterizing the state and level of development of the scientific potential of Russia. It provides information on the number of organizations that carried out research and development, the number and composition of employed personnel, the training of scientific personnel, expenditures on civil science from the federal budget, domestic research and development costs.
Statistical data are given for legal entities (without small businesses) performing research and development, for the reporting period, all types of economic activities and forms of ownership.
Research and development is a creative activity carried out on a systematic basis in order to increase the amount of scientific knowledge, including about man, nature and society, as well as to search for new areas of application of this knowledge.
In accordance with the All-Russian Classification of Types of Economic Activity (OKVED), activities classified as scientific research and development include:
- basic scientific research - experimental or theoretical activities aimed at obtaining new knowledge about the basic laws of the structure, functioning and development of man, society, the environment;
- applied research - research aimed mainly at the application of new knowledge to achieve practical goals and solve specific problems;
- experimental development - activity based on knowledge acquired as a result of research or on the basis of practical experience, and aimed at preserving human life and health, creating new materials, products, processes, devices, services, systems or methods and their further improvement .
Research and development does not include the following activities:
- education and training;
- scientific and technical services, including market research; the collection and processing of general-purpose data (if this does not apply to specific research works), tests and analyzes in scientific fields, pre-project works, specialized medical services; adaptation, support and maintenance of existing software;
- production activities for the introduction of innovations;
- management and other supporting activities (state management of research and development, their financing, etc.).